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Base Court, Anne Boleyn Gatehouse, Hampton Court Palace

Kelly, Alison Base Court, Anne Boleyn Gatehouse, Hampton Court Palace. [Client Report] (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Oxford Archaeology was commissioned by Historic Royal Palaces to record and investigate the Anne Boleyn Gatehouse at Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. The investigation and recording work was undertaken during restoration and building works to the gatehouse. Other investigations included the identification of the stonework by Robin Sanderson and the analysis of the painted brick surfaces, Astronomical and slate clocks and the early 18th century cupola and lantern by Catherine Hassall. As well as examination of the gatehouse fabric during the works, opportunity was taken to investigate and record the blocked upper sections of the SE and SW turrets, as well as the accessible parts of the NW turret. Constructed by Cardinal Wolsey between 1514 and 1522, the Anne Boleyn Gatehouse is set within the east range and is of brick construction with stone detailing and forms part of the original courtyard of the palace. The gateway, as with the rest of the courtyard, provided high status accommodation for courtiers and visitors to the Palace. Following his acquisition of Hampton Court in around 1529, Henry VIII continued with large construction works at the Palace and part of these works included alterations to the fabric of the gatehouse. The late Tudor period and 17th century saw few changes to the fabric but in the early 18th century the gatehouse underwent major structural alterations to a design by Wren. These alterations included the placing of the bells from the NW turret within a lantern situated on top of a cupola in the roof of the gatehouse. Following the use of the gatehouse as part of Apartment 30 during the Grace and Favour period the gatehouse saw many internal alterations. Further changes to the gatehouse fabric occurred during the 19th century including the refacing and remortaring of brickwork and the replacement of the clocks on the west elevation. Ongoing repairs and replacement of brickwork continued during the 20th century. Several points of interest were discovered during the recording and investigation process. These included the discovery of early brickwork decoration, hidden beneath the lead plaques of the terracotta roundels, all of which were analysed by a paint expert. Internal survey of the blocked areas of the turrets revealed primary phase stone windows and doors, hidden on the external elevation by later refacing works. The brickwork of the lower NW turret was identified as being 18th century in date and of a previously unrecorded type instead of late 19th century T stock bricks as previously supposed. This brickwork was raked back to allow for the application of thickly laid black ash mortar during the re-Tudorisation of the Palace in the late 19th century. A key element revealed during the works was the unusually designed timber ball finial which appears unique and of some historical interest. Graffiti on a lantern cap sarking board give a definite date of 1711 for the completion of the Wren remodelling works. In all, the works to the gatehouse allowed a high level of recording and investigation of the fabric and therefore a greater understanding of the early construction phase of the palace.

Item Type:Client Report
Subjects:Geographical Areas > English Counties > Greater London
Period > UK Periods > Medieval 1066 - 1540 AD
Period > UK Periods > Post Medieval 1540 - 1901 AD
ID Code:1784
Deposited By: Scott
Deposited On:24 Jul 2014 12:56
Last Modified:24 Jul 2014 12:56

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